Lathe boring is a cutting operation that uses a single-point cutting tool or a boring head to produce conical or cylindrical surfaces by enlarging an existing opening in a workpiece. For nontapered holes, the cutting tool moves parallel to the axis of rotation. For tapered holes, the cutting tool moves at an angle to the axis of rotation. Geometries ranging from simple to extremely complex in a variety of diameters can be produced using boring applications. Boring is one of the most basic lathe operations next to turning and drilling.
Among the four most commonly used workholding devices are the three-jaw chuck. he three-jaw chuck is used to hold round or hex workpieces because the work is automatically centered.
The geometry produced by lathe boring is usually of two types: straight holes and tapered holes. Several diameters can also be added to each shape hole if required. To produce a taper, the tool may be fed at an angle to the axis of rotation or both feed and axial motions may be concurrent. Straight holes and counterbores are produced by moving the tool parallel to the axis of workpiece rotation.
Sometimes a part may require higher accuracy of form and size than can be provided by boring.
The limitations of boring in terms of its geometric accuracy (form, position, maximum diameter) and the hardness of the workpiece have been shrinking in recent decades as machining technology continues to advance. It is however used for machining cylinders, bearings seats, and other precision machining.